Internal Firmware

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This article discusses software internally used by Apple.

Acquiring a copy without Apple's consent is illegal and may result in being scammed.
Engaging in illegal activity is not condoned. This information is provided for educational purposes only.

This is a documented list of known factory firmwares, used by Apple workers in California to do engineering tests on prototype devices and also by factory workers on production ones during manufacturing. Factory firmwares are based on production iOS ones, but adapted for internal engineering tests, development and debugging.

See also: Prototypes
"Skankwerk" logo on 7.x and up
"Skankwerk" logo on 6.x and below
Prototype showing newer Skankwerk logo during boot
Prototype showing older Skankwerk logo during boot

They are also known as "NonUI (No User Interface)" builds, probably because most applications are command line ones. The SpringBoard replacement, named SwitchBoard, allows the launching of a GUI for some of those applications. Unlike production iOS firmwares, factory ones have the following differences:

  • DEVELOPMENT fused bootloaders in \Firmware\dfu\ and \Firmware\all_flash\all_flash.[board codename].factory[fa/sa]\.
  • FACTORY fused SEP firmware in \Firmware\all_flash\all_flash.[board codename].factory[fa/sa]\
  • DEVELOPMENT fused kernelcache with more symbols (located in /System/Library/Caches/com.apple.kernelcaches on the filesystem), and with individual kexts in /System/Library/Extensions.
  • DEVELOPMENT dyld_shared_cache in /System/Library/Caches/com.apple.dyld.
  • DEBUG fused baseband firmware in \Firmware\.
  • Skankwerk (gear) logo image file in \Firmware\all_flash\all_flash.[board codename].factoryfa\.
  • /AppleInternal folder, which the hierarchy inside get priority over hierarchy in /.
  • No SpringBoard, requires the use of daemons to launch SwitchBoard.app as a multi-app launcher instead.
  • /usr and subfolders contain many UNIX command line utilities.
  • SSH daemon is pre-installed as dropbear, can be connected to over usb
  • Boot loader passes arguments to kernel (unlike RELEASE boot loaders as of iOS 5.0) which makes it easy to disable AMFI
  • It has some additional Private Frameworks in /System/Library/PrivateFrameworks for internal GUI apps and command line utilities.
  • Most internal applications require the use of SkankKit (replacement for UIKit in nonUI firmwares) to produce special layers such as text on the framebuffer.

Unlike regular iOS Firmwares, factory ones are distributed in "restore bundles". Restore bundles are like contents of IPSW files which can be restored on devices using internal restore software such as PurpleRestore. Release and factory firmware "restore bundles" have the same packaging structure (bootloaders, kernel, restore ramdisk, update ramdisk and root filesystem), but can also include other files.

Some interesting facts about factory firmwares

  • Design: Apple seems to use the same GUI design from the production firmware to the factory one.

Production iOS 1.x to 6.x skeuomorphism design is also present on 1.x to 6.x factory firmwares, but seems really more excessive than production ones. For example, the "skankwerk" boot logo represents a real gear and many GUI icons are realistic or simply photos of real life things (especially in Operator). For newer versions, production iOS 7.x to 9.x flat design is mostly used in 7.x to 9.x factory firmwares. For example, the new "skankwerk" boot logo is a flat, simple white gear. Some newer internal applications like Earthbound also use a "flat" design.

  • Other: The "skank" word is used to name multiple elements of factory firmwares. For example, there is "skankphone", "skankbattery" (the green battery shown in SwitchBoard), "skankwerk" logo, "skankkit" framework, "purpleskank" (used by BurnIn) and most likely others. The "skank" word seems to be a reference to "Skunkworks" projects, which are secrecy projects that are usually innovative. Read more about "Skunkworks" on Wikipedia.

iPhones

iPhone

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
1.0 1A420 Alpine 03.06.01_G[1] Originally available here, but was soon taken down.
4A57 04.02.13_G -
1.1.2 3B48 04.02.13_G -
1.1.3 4A102a 04.04.05_G -

iPhone 3G

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
4.0 8A2130h ApexNanshan ? -
8A2180g 05.12.01 -

iPhone 3GS

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
3.0 7A2168d Kirkwood? ? From @1nsane_dev on Twitter
3.1b 7C108b Sierra? ? -
7C144 Northstar? ? -
4.0 8A2130h ApexNanshan ? -
8A2180g 05.12.01 -
5.1 9B3145a HoodooYabuli ? -
9B3176b ? -
9B3176n 05.16.05 -
6.0 10A316 Sundance 05.16.06 -

iPhone 4

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
4.0 8A133 Apex? 01.32.01 -
8A2062a ? -
8A2130h ApexNanshan ? -
8A2180g 01.42.01 -
4.2 8E5074b Phoenix? ? Found on an FCC test report [2]
5.1 9B3145a HoodooYabuli ? -
9B3176b ? -
9B3176n 04.12.01 -
6.0 10A316 Sundance 04.12.02 -

iPhone 4S

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
5.0 9A2264r TellurideNanshan ? -
5.1 9B3145a HoodooYabuli ? -
9B3176b ? -
9B3176n 1.0.10 -
6.0 10A23941a SundanceNanshan 2.0.0.2 -
10B63290m SundanceNanshan? ? -

iPhone 5

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
6.0 10A23110z Sundance? ? -
10A23941s ? -
10A316 Sundance 1.7.00 -

iPhone 5c

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
7.0 11A63840h InnsbruckTianshan ? From @mcg29_ on Twitter [3]
11A93840f InnsbruckAni? ? -
11A93840l InnsbruckAni ? -
7.1 11D31620l Sochi ? -
11D31620u SochiYabuli ? -

iPhone 5s

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
6.0 10A101 Sundance? ? From @1nsane_dev on Twitter
7.0 11A22051f Innsbruck? ? From @DongleBookPro on Twitter
11A24580o InnsbruckNanshan 1.00.05 -
11A24581c ? -
11A24581k ? From @1nsane_dev on Twitter
11A360 7.02-16 Found on an FCC test report [4]
11A93840f InnsbruckAni? ? Originally found on a MacRumors post
11.0 15A93720r TigrisAni? ? -

iPhone 6

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
8.0 12A22121a Okemo? ? -
12A310 0.26.01 Found on an FCC test report [5]
12A93311h 1.00.01 -
12A93650o OkemoAni 1.00.05 -
12A93650z ? From @AppleInternalsh on Twitter
12A93651a 1.00.05 -
12A93651b 1.00.05 -
8.3 12F69 Stowe? ? Seen on iFixit's forum [6]
9.0 13A83261u MonarchSajo ? From @CollectorApple on Twitter
13A83262c ? From @ThermalDOE on Twitter
11.3 15E61570m Emet? ? From @mcg29_ on Twitter

iPhone 6 Plus

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
8.0 12A22121a Okemo? ? -
12A23410x Okemo? ? from @DongleBookPro on Twitter

iPhone 6s

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
9.0 13A22120w Monarch? ? -
13A93051l MonarchAni 0.37.08 -
13A93051r MonarchAni? ? -
13A93420d Monarch? ? -
13A93420i ? From @AppleInternalsh on Twitter
13A93420m 1.00.05 -
10.0 14A83432m Whitetail? ? From @OkemoZurs on Twitter
11.0 15A23061c Tigris? ? From @mcg29_ on Twitter

iPhone 6s Plus

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
9.0 13A22120w Monarch? ? -
13A23161b MonarchNanshan ? -

iPhone SE (1st generation)

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
9.3 13E180 Eagle? 4.70.10 Found on an FCC test report [7]

iPhone 7

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
10.0 14A22580n Whitetail? 0.16.01-3 Found on an FCC test report [8]
14A22881a ? -
14A92340t ? -
14A93012r WhitetailAni ? -
14A93013a ? -
10.0.1 14Z1062 BigShot ? -

iPhone 7 Plus

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
10.0 14A22161a WhitetailAni? ? -
14A22181a ? -

iPhone 8

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
11.0 15A93261h TigrisAni 00.34.09 -
15A93720p TigrisAni? ? From @AppleInternalsh on Twitter.
15A93720r TigrisAni? ? -

iPhone 8 Plus

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
11.0 15A93260r Tigris ? From @1nsane_dev on Twitter
15A93621f ? From @1nsane_dev on Twitter

iPhone X

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
11.0 15A783601x TigrisAni ? -
15A783601y ? -

iPhone XR

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
12.0 16A13580x Peace ? From this eBay listing
16A13580z ? From @1nsane_dev on Twitter
16A13581a ? From @ThermalDOE on Twitter
16A73281c ? -

iPhone XS

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
12.0 16A93020u PeaceAni ? -

iPhone XS Max

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
12.0 16A23250u Peace? ? From @1nsane_dev on Twitter.
16A22481b ? From @YRH04E on Twitter

iPhone 12 Pro

Verison Build Codename Baseband Comments
14.1 18A23581a Azul? ? From @1nsane_dev on Twitter

iPhone 12 Pro Max

Verison Build Codename Baseband Comments
14.0 18A23121e Azul ? Found on an FCC test report [9]
18A311 ? From @BenGeskin on Twitter

iPads

iPad (1st generation)

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
3.2 7B3341e Wildcat ? -
7B5286a ? Found by SonnyDickson, documented on 9to5mac

iPad (2nd generation)

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
4.3 8F3178a Durango ? -
8F3191d ? -

iPad (5th generation)

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
10.3 14E61810k Erie? ? From @AppleInternalsh on Twitter
14E62210l ? From @AppleInternalsh on Twitter
10.3.2 14F60900i Franklin ? From @AppleInternalsh on Twitter
14F60900l ? From @mcg29_ on Twitter

iPad (6th generation)

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
11.3 15E61570l Emet? ? Found on an FCC test report [10]
15E61570m ? This iPad is the only device that started with 11.3, so it is safe to assume it is this device. From @mcg29_ on Twitter

iPad mini (1st generation)

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
6.0 10A63970m SundanceTaosTianshan ? -
10A63970v ? -
10A63971b ? -

iPad mini (2nd generation)

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
7.0.3 11B64940j InnsbruckTaos? ? -
10.3 14E62210l Erie? ? -
11.0 15A93720r TigrisAni? ? -

iPad mini (3rd generation)

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
11.3 15E61570m Emet? ? From @mcg29_ on Twitter

iPad mini (4th generation)

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
8.4 12H60160o Donner? ? -
9.0 13A62950o Monarch? ? -
9.0.2 13A64520d MonarchTianshan 4.02.00 From @AppleInternalsh on Twitter.

iPad mini (5th generation)

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
12.2 16E31120n PeaceEYabuli? ? From @laobaiTD on Twitter
16E31520i ? Found on an FCC test report [11]

iPad Air (1st generation)

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
7.0 11B34210y InnsbruckTaosYabuli ? This is for the iPad4,2 model.
7.0.1 11B34640l Innsbruck? ? -

iPad Air (2nd generation)

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
8.1 12B33610i OkemoTaos? ? From journaldulapin.com [12].

iPad Air (3rd generation)

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
12.2 16E31120m PeaceEYabuli ? -

iPad Pro (unreleased)

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
9.0 13A165 Monarch 2.15.00 (debug) This comes as a Restore Bundle, and is for J98/99AP

iPods

iPod touch (1st generation)

Version Build Codename Comments
1.1 3A53 Snowbird Found on an FCC test report [13]

iPod touch (3rd generation)

Version Build Codename Comments
3.1 7C1023e Inferno? -
7C1095a -
7C144 Northstar? -

iPod touch (4th generation)

Version Build Codename Comments
4.1 8B1016c Baker From this ebay listing by hap plain
5.1 9B3145a HoodooYabuli -
9B3176b -
9B3176n -

iPod touch (5th generation)

Version Build Codename Comments
6.0 10A351 Sundance? Found on an FCC test report [14]

iPod touch (6th generation)

Version Build Codename Comments
8.3 12H1150f CopperJade From @OkemoZurs on Twitter.
8.4 12H10570d From @1nsane_dev on Twitter.
9.3 13C75 Castlerock