Factory Firmware

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This article discusses software internally used by Apple.

Acquiring a copy without Apple's consent is illegal and may result in being scammed.
Engaging in illegal activity is not condoned. This information is provided for educational purposes only.

This is a documented list of known factory firmwares, used by Apple workers in California to do engineering tests on prototype devices and also by factory workers on production ones during manufacturing. Factory firmwares are based on production iOS ones, but adapted for internal engineering tests, development and debugging.

See also: Prototypes
"Skankwerk" logo on 7.x and up
"Skankwerk" logo on 6.x and below
Prototype showing newer Skankwerk logo during boot
Prototype showing older Skankwerk logo during boot

They are also known as "NonUI (No User Interface)" builds, probably because most applications are command line ones. The SpringBoard replacement, named SwitchBoard, allows the launching of a GUI for some of those applications. Unlike production iOS firmwares, factory ones have the following differences:

  • DEVELOPMENT/DEBUG fused bootloaders in \Firmware\dfu\ and \Firmware\all_flash\all_flash.[board codename].factoryfa\.
  • DEVELOPMENT/DEBUG fused kernelcache with more symbols (located in /System/Library/Caches/com.apple.kernelcaches on the filesystem), and with individual kexts in /System/Library/Extensions.
  • DEVELOPMENT dyld_shared_cache in /System/Library/Caches/com.apple.dyld.
  • DEBUG fused baseband firmware in \Firmware\.
  • Skankwerk (gear) logo image file in \Firmware\all_flash\all_flash.[board codename].factoryfa\.
  • /AppleInternal folder, which the hierarchy inside get priority over hierarchy in /.
  • No SpringBoard, requires the use of daemons to launch SwitchBoard.app as a multi-app launcher instead.
  • /usr and subfolders contain many UNIX command line utilities.
  • SSH daemon is pre-installed as dropbear, can be connected to over usb
  • Boot loader passes arguments to kernel (unlike RELEASE boot loaders as of iOS 5.0) which makes it easy to disable AMFI
  • It has some additional Private Frameworks in /System/Library/PrivateFrameworks for internal GUI apps and command line utilities.
  • Most internal applications require the use of SkankKit (replacement for UIKit in nonUI firmwares) to produce special layers such as text on the framebuffer.

Unlike regular iOS Firmwares, factory ones are distributed in both IPSWs and "restore bundles". These bundles are unzipped IPSW files which can be restored on devices using internal restore software such as PurpleRestore. Release and factory firmware "restore bundles" have the same packaging structure (bootloaders, kernel, restore ramdisk, update ramdisk and root filesystem).

Some interesting facts about factory firmwares

  • Design: Apple seems to use the same GUI design from the production firmware to the factory one.

Production iOS 1.x to 6.x skeuomorphism design is also present on 1.x to 6.x factory firmwares, but seems really more excessive than production ones. For example, the "skankwerk" boot logo represents a real gear and many GUI icons are realistic or simply photos of real life things (especially in Operator). For newer versions, production iOS 7.x to 9.x flat design is mostly used in 7.x to 9.x factory firmwares. For example, the new "skankwerk" boot logo is a flat, simple white gear. Some newer internal applications like Earthbound also use a "flat" design.

  • Other: The "skank" word is used to name multiple elements of factory firmwares. For example, there is "skankphone", "skankbattery" (the green battery shown in SwitchBoard), "skankwerk" logo, "skankkit" framework, "purpleskank" (used by BurnIn) and most likely others. The "skank" word seems to be a reference to "Skunkworks" projects, which are secrecy projects that are usually innovative. Read more about "Skunkworks" on Wikipedia.

iPhone

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
1.0 1A420 Alpine 03.06.01_G[1] Originally available here, but was soon taken down.
4A57 04.02.13_G -
1.1.2 3B48 04.02.13_G -
1.1.3 4A102a 04.04.05_G -

iPhone 3G

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
4.0 8A2130h ApexNanshan ? -
8A2180g 05.12.01 -

iPhone 3GS

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
3.1b 7C108b Sierra? ? -
7C144 Northstar? ? -
4.0 8A2130h ApexNanshan ? -
8A2180g 05.12.01 -
5.1 9B3145a HoodooYabuli ? -
9B3176b ? -
9B3176n 05.16.05 -
6.0 10A316 Sundance 05.16.06 -

iPhone 4

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
4.0 8A133 Apex? 01.32.01 -
8A2062a ? -
8A2130h ApexNanshan ? -
8A2180g 01.42.01 -
5.1 9B3145a HoodooYabuli ? -
9B3176b ? -
9B3176n 04.12.01 -
6.0 10A316 Sundance 04.12.02 -

iPhone 4S

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
5.0 9A2264r HoodooYabuli? ? -
5.1 9B3145a HoodooYabuli ? -
9B3176b ? -
9B3176n 1.0.10 -
6.0 10A23941a SundanceNanshan 2.0.0.2 -
10B63290m SundanceNanshan? ? -

iPhone 5

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
6.0 10A23110z Sundance? ? -
10A23941s ? -
10A316 Sundance 1.7.00 -

iPhone 5c

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
7.0 11A93840l Sochi? ? -
7.1 11D31620l ? -

iPhone 5s

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
7.0 11A24580o InnsbruckNanshan 1.00.05 -
11A24581c ? -
11A93840f Innsbruck? ? Originally found on a Macrumors post.

iPhone 6

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
8.0 12A22121a Okemo? ? -
12A93311h 1.00.01 -
12A93650o OkemoAni 1.00.05 This build is pretty obscure, but it is in the wild.
12A93650z ? From @AppleInternalsh on Twitter.
12A93651a 1.00.05 -
12A93651b 1.00.05 -

iPhone 6 Plus

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
8.0 12A22121a OkemoAni? ? -

iPhone 6s

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
9.0 13A22120w Monarch? ? -
13A93051l MonarchAni 0.37.08 -
13A93051r MonarchAni? ? -
13A93420d Monarch? ? -
13A93420i ? From @AppleInternalsh on Twitter.
13A93420m 1.00.05 -
10.0 14A83432m Whitetail? ? From @OkemoZurs on Twitter.

iPhone 6s Plus

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
9.0 13A22120w Monarch? ? -
13A23161b MonarchNanshan ? -

iPhone 7

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
10.0 14A22580n Whitetail? ? -
14A22881a ? -
14A92340t ? -
14A93012r WhitetailAni ? -
14A93013a ? -
10.0.1 14Z1062 BigShot ? -

iPhone 7 Plus

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
10.0 14A22161a WhitetailAni? ? -
14A22181a ? -

iPhone 8

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
11.0 15A93261h TigrisAni 00.34.09 -
15A93720p TigrisAni? ? From @AppleInternalsh on Twitter.
15A93720r TigrisAni? ? -

iPhone 8 Plus

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
11.0 15A93261l? (or f?) TigrisAni? ? From @1nsane_dev on Twitter.

iPhone X

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
11.0 15A783601x TigrisAni? ? -
15A783601y ? -

iPhone XR

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
12.0 16A13580z Peace? ? From @1nsane_dev on twitter
16A73281c ? -


iPhone XS Max

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
12.0 16A23250u Peace? ? From @1nsane_dev on twitter. Could Be 16A232150u.
16A22481b ? From @YRH04E on twitter

iPad

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
3.2 7B3341e Wildcat? ? -
7B5286a ? Found by SonnyDickson, documented on 9to5mac

iPad 2

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
4.3 8F3178a Durango? ? -
8F3191d Durango ? -

iPad (5th generation)

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
10.0? 14E62210l WhitetailAni? ? From @AppleInternalsh on Twitter.

iPad mini

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
6.0 10A63970m SundanceTaosTianshan ? -
10A63970v ? -
10A63971b ? -

iPad mini 2

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
7.0.3 11B64940j InnsbruckTaos? ? -
7.1 11D167 Sochi? ? -

iPad mini 4

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
8.4 12H60160o Donner? ? -
9.0 13A62950o Monarch? ? -
13A64520d Monarch? ? From @AppleInternalsh on Twitter.

iPad Air

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
7.0.1 11B34640l Innsbruck? ? -

iPad Air 2

Version Build Codename Baseband Comments
10.0? 14F60900i WhitetailAni? ? From @AppleInternalsh on Twitter.

iPod touch (3rd generation)

Version Build Codename Comments
3.1 7C1023e Inferno? -
7C1095a -
7C144 Northstar? -

iPod touch (4th generation)

Version Build Codename Comments
5.1 9B3145a HoodooYabuli -
9B3176b -
9B3176n -

iPod touch (6th generation)

Version Build Codename Comments
8.3 12H1150f Okemo? From @OkemoZurs on Twitter.
12H10570d Okemo? From @1nsane_dev on Twitter.