This is the Settings.app which comes with stock iOS. It was present in all iOS versions and from iOS 7.0 it featured the Framework 7 user interface.
This app allows user-settings to be configured, also contains the Factory Reset module (require a password if Find My iPhone is on). The application can usually be started from the System/Library/CoreServices/SpringBoard.app but can also be launched from Voice Control or Siri.
The app has direct access to lockdownd file and so it can fetch the IMEI and other unique details. The app can also fetch the Sim Status from the Baseband and also the Lock Status.
Some applications usually add new setting tabs containing the "About" section or the app version.
A bug in iOS 7.1.2 on iPhone 4 caused Preferences.app to shut down automatically after 1 second (when you launched it) due to Cydia. The BUG was only present on Jailbroken devices and only through GeekSn0w Jailbreak app.